China was forced to pay compensation, open treaty ports, allow extraterritoriality for foreign nationals, and cede hong Kong to the British 96 under the 1842 Treaty of Nanking, the first of the Unequal Treaties. The first Sino-japanese war (189495) resulted in Qing China's loss of influence in the korean Peninsula, as well as the cession of taiwan to japan. 97 The qing dynasty also began experiencing internal unrest in which tens of millions of people died, especially in the failed taiping Rebellion that ravaged southern China in the 1850s and 1860s and the dungan revolt (186277) in the northwest. The initial success of the self-Strengthening movement of the 1860s was frustrated by a series of military defeats in the 1880s and 1890s. In the 19th century, the great Chinese diaspora began. Losses due to emigration were added to by conflicts and catastrophes such as the northern Chinese famine of 187679, in which between 9 and 13 million people died. 98 The guangxu Emperor drafted a reform plan in 1898 to establish a modern constitutional monarchy, but these plans were thwarted by the Empress Dowager Cixi. The ill-fated anti-foreign Boxer Rebellion of further weakened the dynasty. Although Cixi sponsored a program of reforms, the xinhai revolution of 191112 brought an end to the qing dynasty and established the republic of China. Republic of China (19121949) main article: Republic of China (19121949) On, the republic of China was established, and Sun Yat-sen of the kuomintang (the kmt or Nationalist vervolgopleiding Party) was proclaimed provisional president. 99 However, the presidency was later given to yuan Shikai, a former Qing general who in 1915 proclaimed himself Emperor of China.
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It was during this period that Zheng he led treasure voyages throughout the design world, reaching as far as Africa. 89 In the verwijderen early years of the ming dynasty, china's capital was moved from Nanjing to beijing. With the budding of capitalism, philosophers such as Wang Yangming further critiqued and expanded neo-confucianism with concepts of individualism and equality of four occupations. 90 The scholar-official stratum became a supporting force of industry and commerce in the tax boycott movements, which, together with the famines and defense against Japanese invasions of Korea (159298) and Manchu invasions led to an exhausted treasury. 91 In 1644, beijing was captured by a coalition of peasant rebel forces led by li zicheng. The Chongzhen Emperor committed suicide when the city fell. The manchu qing dynasty, then allied with Ming dynasty general wu sangui, overthrew li's short-lived Shun dynasty and subsequently seized control of beijing, which became the new capital of the qing dynasty. End of dynastic rule The qing dynasty, which lasted from 16, was the last imperial dynasty of China. Its conquest of the ming (16181683) cost 25 million lives and the economy of China shrank drastically. 92 After the southern Ming ended, the further conquest of the dzungar Khanate added Mongolia, tibet and Xinjiang to the empire. 93 The centralized autocracy was strengthened to crack down on anti-qing sentiment with the policy of valuing agriculture and restraining commerce, the haijin sea ban and ideological control as represented by the literary inquisition, causing social and technological stagnation. 94 95 In the mid-19th century, the dynasty experienced Western imperialism in the Opium Wars with Britain and France.
10th and 11th centuries, the population of China doubled in size to around 100 million people, mostly because of the expansion of rice cultivation in central and southern China, and the production of abundant food surpluses. The song dynasty also saw a revival of Confucianism, in response to the growth of Buddhism during the tang, 84 and a flourishing of philosophy and the arts, as landscape art and porcelain were brought to new levels of maturity and complexity. 85 86 However, the military weakness of the song army was observed by the jurchen Jin dynasty. In 1127, Emperor huizong of Song and the capital bianjing were captured during the jinSong Wars. The remnants of the song retreated to southern China. 87 The 13th century brought the mongol conquest of China. In 1271, the mongol leader Kublai khan established the yuan dynasty ; the yuan conquered the last remnant of the song dynasty in 1279. Before the mongol invasion, the population of Song China was 120 million citizens; this was reduced to 60 million by the time of the census in 1300. 88 A peasant named Zhu yuanzhang overthrew the yuan in 1368 and founded the ming dynasty as the hongwu Emperor. Under the ming dynasty, china enjoyed another golden age, developing one of the strongest navies in the world and a rich and prosperous economy amid a flourishing of art and culture.
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The xianbei unified them as the quality northern wei, whose Emperor xiaowen reversed his predecessors' apartheid policies and enforced a drastic sinification on his subjects, largely integrating them into Chinese culture. In the south, the general liu yu secured the abdication of the jin in favor of the liu song. The various successors of these states became known as the northern and southern dynasties, with the two areas finally reunited by the sui in 581. The sui restored the han to power through China, reformed its agriculture and economy, constructed the Grand Canal, and patronized Buddhism. However, they fell quickly when their conscription for public works and a failed war with Korea provoked widespread unrest. 78 79 Under the succeeding Tang and Song dynasties, Chinese economy, technology, and culture entered a golden age. 80 The tang Empire returned control of the western Regions and the silk road, 81 and made the capital Chang'an a cosmopolitan urban center. However, it was devastated and weakened by the An Shi rebellion in the 8th century. 82 In 907, the tang disintegrated completely when the local military governors became ungovernable. The song dynasty ended the separatist situation in 960, leading to a balance of power between the song and Khitan liao.
His dynasty also conquered the yue tribes in guangxi, guangdong, and vietnam. 71 The qin dynasty lasted only fifteen years, falling soon after the first Emperor's death, as his harsh authoritarian policies led to widespread rebellion. 72 73 Following a widespread civil war during which the imperial library at xianyang was burned, q the han dynasty emerged to rule China between 206 bce and CE 220, creating a cultural identity among its populace still remembered in the ethnonym of the han Chinese. 72 73 The han expanded the empire's territory considerably, with military campaigns reaching Central Asia, mongolia, south Korea, and Yunnan, and the recovery of guangdong and northern vietnam from Nanyue. Han involvement in Central Asia and Sogdia helped establish the land route of the silk road, replacing the earlier path over the himalayas to India. Han China gradually became the largest economy of the ancient world. 75 Despite the han's initial decentralization and the official abandonment of the qin philosophy of Legalism in favor of Confucianism, qin's legalist institutions and policies continued to be employed by the han government and its successors. 76 After the end of the han dynasty, a period of strife known as Three kingdoms followed, 77 whose central figures were later immortalized in one of the four Classics of Chinese literature. At its end, wei was swiftly overthrown by the jin dynasty. The jin fell to civil war upon the ascension of a developmentally-disabled emperor ; the five barbarians then invaded and ruled northern China as the sixteen States.
Asia pacific Cruises Cruise company64 The succeeding Shang dynasty is the earliest to be confirmed by contemporary records. 65 The Shang ruled the plain of the yellow river in eastern China from the 17th to the 11th century BCE. 66 Their oracle bone script (from. . 1500 BCE) 67 68 represents the oldest form of Chinese writing yet found, 69 and is a direct ancestor of modern Chinese characters. 70 The Shang were conquered aging by the Zhou, who ruled between the 11th and 5th centuries bce, though centralized authority was slowly eroded by feudal warlords. Many independent states eventually emerged from the weakened Zhou state and continually waged war with each other in the 300-year Spring and Autumn period, only occasionally deferring to the Zhou king. By the time of the warring States period of the 5th3rd centuries bce, there were seven powerful sovereign states in what is now China, each with its own king, ministry and army. Imperial China The warring States period ended in 221 bce after the state of Qin conquered the other six kingdoms and established the first unified Chinese state. King Zheng of Qin proclaimed himself the first Emperor of the qin dynasty. He enacted Qin's legalist reforms throughout China, notably the forced standardization of Chinese characters, measurements, road widths (i.e., cart axles' length and currency.
52 It developed during the wei and Jin dynasties as a contraction of shiseido "the central state of the huaxia ". 48 Before the prc's establishment, the proposed name of the country was the people's Democratic Republic of China ( simplified Chinese : ; traditional Chinese : ; pinyin : Zhōnghuá rénmín Mínzhǔ Gònghéguó ) during the first cppcc held on 53 54 During the 1950s. 55 History main articles: History of China and Timeline of Chinese history Prehistory main article: Chinese prehistory Archaeological evidence suggests that early hominids inhabited China between.24 million and 250,000 years ago. 56 The hominid fossils of peking Man, a homo erectus who used fire, 57 were discovered in a cave at Zhoukoudian near beijing ; they have been dated to between 680,000 and 780,000 utrecht years ago. 58 The fossilized teeth of Homo sapiens (dated to 125,00080,000 years ago ) have been discovered in fuyan cave in dao county, hunan. 59 Chinese proto-writing existed in jiahu around 7000 bce, 60 Damaidi around 6000 bce, 61 Dadiwan from bce, and Banpo dating from the 5th millennium BCE. Some scholars have suggested that the jiahu symbols (7th millennium BCE) constituted the earliest Chinese writing system. 60 Early dynastic rule further information: Dynasties in Chinese history yinxu, the ruins of the capital of the late Shang dynasty (14th century BCE) According to Chinese tradition, the first dynasty was the xia, which emerged around 2100 BCE. 62 The dynasty was considered mythical by historians until scientific excavations found early Bronze age sites at Erlitou, henan in 1959. 63 It remains unclear whether these sites are the remains of the xia dynasty or of another culture from the same period.
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China is a great power and a major regional power within Asia, and has been characterized as a potential superpower. 29 30 Contents Names main article: Names of China The English word "China" is first attested in Richard Eden 's 1555 translation l of the berry 1516 journal of the portuguese explorer duarte barbosa. M 37 The demonym, that is, the name for the people, and adjectival form "Chinese" developed later on the model of Portuguese chinês and French chinois. 38 n Portuguese China is thought to derive from Persian Chīn ( and perhaps ultimately from Sanskrit Cīna ( ). 40 Cīna was first used in early hindu scripture, including the mahābhārata (5th century BCE) and the laws of Manu (2nd century BCE). 41 In 1655, martino martini suggested that the word China is derived from the name of the qin dynasty (221206 bc 42 a proposal supported by many later scholars, although there are also a number of alternative suggestions. 41 46 The official name of the modern state is the "People's Republic of China" ( Chinese : ; pinyin : Zhōnghuá rénmín Gònghéguó ). The shorter form is "China" Zhōngguó ( from zhōng central and guó state 32 o a term which developed under the western Zhou dynasty in reference to its royal demesne. P It was then applied to the area around luoyi (present-day luoyang) during the eastern Zhou and then to China's Central Plain before being used as an occasional synonym for the state under the qing. 48 It was often used as a cultural concept to distinguish the huaxia people from perceived "barbarians" 48 and was the source of the English name "Middle kingdom". 50 51 A more literary or inclusive name, alluding to the "land of Chinese civilization is Zhōnghuá ( ).
The succeeding Han dynasty saw some of the most advanced technology at that time, including papermaking and the compass, 23 along with agricultural and medical improvements. The invention of gunpowder and printing in the tang dynasty completed the four Great Inventions. Tang culture spread widely in Asia, as the new maritime silk route brought traders to as far as Mesopotamia and Somalia. Dynastic rule ended in 1912 with the xinhai revolution, as a republic replaced the qing dynasty. The Chinese civil War led to the break up of the country in 1949, with the victorious Communist Party of China founding the peoples Republic of China on the mainland while the losing kuomintang retreated to taiwan, a dispute which is still unresolved. Since the introduction of economic reforms in 1978, china's economy has been one of the world's fastest-growing. As of 2016, it is the world's second-largest economy by nominal gdp and largest by purchasing power parity (PPP). China is also the world's largest exporter and second-largest importer of goods. 25 China is a recognized nuclear weapons state and has the world's largest standing army and second-largest defense budget. The prc is a member of the United Nations, as it replaced the roc as a permanent member of the un security council in 1971. China is also a member of numerous formal and informal bogyó multilateral organizations, including the asean plus mechanism, wto, apec, brics, the Shanghai cooperation Organization (sco the bcim and the G20.
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This article is about the people's Republic of China. For the republic of China, see. For other uses, see, china (disambiguation). For other uses, see. China, officially the, people's Republic of China prc is a unitary sovereign state in, east Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around.404 billion. 13, covering approximately 9,600,000 square kilometers (3,700,000 sq mi it is the third- or fourth-largest country by total area, k 21 depending on the source consulted. China also has the most neighbor countries in the world. Communist Party of China, it exercises jurisdiction over 22 provinces, five autonomous regions, four direct-controlled municipalities beijing, tianjin, shanghai, and, chongqing and the special administrative regions of, hong Kong and, macau. China emerged as one of the world's earliest civilizations, in the fertile basin of the yellow river in the north China Plain. For millennia, china's political system was based on hereditary monarchies, or dynasties, beginning with the semi-legendary xia dynasty in 21st century bce. 22 Since then, China has expanded, fractured, and re-unified numerous times. In the 3rd century bce, the qin unified core China and established home the first Chinese dynasty.